Department of Veterinary Anatomy

 

PHILOSOPHY

The Postgraduate Programmes of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy are designed to give students a broad background in organ system morphology, relating structure to function and clinical relevance, “form follows function”. It’s therefore expected to help in the diagnosis and recognition of diseased state. The programme prepares the students for high level of academic and research abilities, and to produce high quality teachers of anatomy in research institutes and universities. This will promote scholarly activities among veterinary anatomists and anatomical societies in research as it pertains to improvement of patient care and medical education, as well as foster new research ideas, collaborations and dissemination of knowledge to scientists, clinicians and students.

AIMS

 

In recent times it has been necessary for people to aspire to acquire higher degrees for variety of reasons; including advantage at job placements and self-actualization. The higher degree programmes in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy are planned to meet such needs.  Postgraduate programme of the department is aimed at addressing fundamental aims:

(1) to prepare students for clinical relevance through practical knowledge of morphological anatomy in cadaver and living animals,

(2) to provide the basis for medical imagery.

CAREER PROSPECT FOR GRADUATES

Graduates of the Department’s postgraduate programmes may be employed as teachers and researchers in Veterinary, Medical and Agricultural Science Institutes or Colleges and Universities.  They may also serve as researchers in drug development companies, forensic laboratories, and as consultants to private and public sectors of the livestock industry.

 

  

PROGRAMES

  1. MASTER OF SCIENCE

 

Nature of the Programme

The student will specialize in M.Sc. Veterinary Anatomy

 

Duration of the Programme

The duration of the programme is as follows:

 

  1. Full Time: 4 Semester Minimum (2 sessions)

6 Semesters Maximum (3sessions) (see UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019)

 

  1. Part time 6 Semester Minimum (3 sessions)

8 Semester Maximum (4 sessions) (see UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019)

 

Admission Requirements

Admission requirements as stipulated in the Postgraduate Handbook of the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi are applicable. In addition, the candidate must possess   (i) Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree or its equivalent from a recognized Veterinary Council of Nigeria-accredited/approved University, or

(ii) The candidate must possess a Bachelor of Science (B. Sc) degree in Veterinary Anatomy from a recognized University.

 

Mode of Examination

  1. Eligibility: To be eligible to write examination in each course registered, student must have at least 75% attendance at lectures, practical, seminars and tutorials.
  2. Total credit units: Minimum total credit units earned shall be 25.
  3. Mode of prosecution: The M.Sc. degree programme shall be prosecuted by the following mode:

(i) course work and ii) dissertation. The M.Sc. degree shall be awarded to a candidate after successful oral defense of his/her dissertation.

 

Presentation of Seminar

Apart from seminar series that is part of course work; the M.Sc. degree students shall present at least two seminars during the course of their programme. (UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019).

  1. The first seminar shall be the research proposal and it should be done after the student has finished course work.
  2. The second seminar shall be given upon completion of field/laboratory research work.

Scoring and Grading System

Scoring and grading of courses shall follow the guidelines in which the percentage scores are interpreted in letter grades (A, B, C & D), as shown in the table below:

 

  1. 70% and above 5 points
  2. 60 – 69%             4 points
  3. 50 – 59%             3 points
  4. Less than 50%             0 point

 

Requirements for Graduation

To qualify for the award of M.Sc. degree in Veterinary Anatomy, a student will be required to earn a minimum credit load of 25 units, excluding dissertation/thesis.

 

  1. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Nature of the Programme

The student may specialize in Ph.D. Veterinary Anatomy

 

Duration of the Programme

The duration of the programme is as follows:

 

  1. Full Time: 6 Semester Minimum (3 sessions)

8 Semesters Maximum (4 sessions) (see UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019)

 

  1. Part time: 8 Semester Minimum (4 sessions)                                                                                  10 Semester Maximum (5 sessions) (see UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019)

 

Admission Requirements

The candidate must possess:

  • Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree or its equivalent from a recognized Veterinary Council of Nigeria-accredited/approved University, or Bachelor of Science (B. Sc) degree in Anatomy from a recognized University.
  • In addition to (i) above, the candidate must also possess a M.Sc. in Veterinary Anatomy or Human Anatomy from a recognized University, and must have scored a minimum CGPA of 3.50 on a 5 point scale in the Master’s degree programme.

  

Mode of Examination

  1. Eligibility: To be eligible to write examination in each course registered, student must have at least 75% attendance at lectures, practical, seminars and tutorials.
  2. Total credit hours: Minimum total credit hours shall be 48.
  3. Mode of prosecution: The Ph.D. degree programme shall be pursued by comprehensive research to be embodied in the thesis. Candidates may be required to take some courses and must present seminars as conditions for graduation. Ph.D. degree shall be awarded to a candidate after a successful oral defense of his/her dissertation/thesis.

 

Presentation of Seminar

The Ph.D. degree students shall present at least two seminars during the course of their programme. (UAM, PG prospectus 2016-2019).

  1. The first seminar shall be the presentation of research proposal, and it shall be normally being after the student has finished his/her course work. The seminar affords opportunity for peer review and contribution by staff of the College/Department.
  2. The second seminar is at the end of his/her work before the defense of his/her work before an External Examiner upon completion of field/laboratory research work and gives opportunity for critical assessment of work done.

 

Scoring and Grading System

Scoring and grading of courses shall follow the guidelines in which the percentage scores are interpreted in letter grades (A, B, C, D & F), as shown in the table below:

 

  1. 70% and above 5 points
  2. 60 – 69%             4 points
  3. 50 – 59%             3 points
  4. Less than 50%             0 point

 

Requirements for Graduation

To qualify for the award of Ph.D. degree in Veterinary Anatomy, a student would be required to pass a minimum credit load of 48 units excluding dissertation/thesis.

  

COURSE LISTING: FOR M.Sc.

  1. FIRST SEMESTER
COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE CREDIT UNIT
VAN 801 Advanced Gross Anatomy I 2
VAN 803 Advanced Histology I 2
VAN 805 Advanced Neuroanatomy 3
VAN 807 Problems in Anatomy 1
VAN 809 Seminar I 1
VPP 801 Research Methods and Scientific Writing 3
VPH 811 Applied Biostatistics 2
Total   14

ELECTIVE COURSES

VAN 811 Advanced Histochemistry 2
VAN 813 Advanced Fish Morphology 1
  1. SECOND SEMESTER
COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE CREDIT UNIT
VAN 802 Advanced  Gross Anatomy II 2
VAN 804 Advanced Histology II 2
VAN 806 Advanced Embryology and Teratology 3
VAN 808 Advanced Avian Anatomy 2
VAN 812 Advanced Clinical Anatomy 1
VAN 810 Electron microscopy and Ultrastructure 2
VAN 812 Seminar II 1
Total   13

ELECTIVE COURSES

VAN 814 Radiological Anatomy 2
VAN 816 Anatomic Techniques 1
VAN 818 Cell and tissue Culture 1

THESIS FOR M.Sc.

 

COURSE CODE COURSE TITLE CREDIT UNIT
VAN 899 Thesis 12
TOTAL Minimum total for award of M.Sc (Course Work and Thesis) 37

 

COURSE SYNOPSIS FOR MASTERS PROGRAMMES

 VAN 801: Advanced Gross Anatomy I      2 Credit units

Study of anatomy in the cadaver and living animal bodies: The common integument; the skin and sweat glands. The musculoskeletal system- bones, muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons. The cardiovascular system: the heart and great vessels, circulation in the fetus and conductive system of the heart. The respiratory system: conducting and respiratory regions- with particular interest in the lungs. The study of normal radiological appearances of various structures within the regions of the head, neck and thorax, using plane X-rays as for bone, radio-opaque substances to visualize soft tissues and other advanced techniques.

 

VAN 802: Advanced Gross Anatomy II    2 Credit units

The anatomy of the simple and complex digestive system; to show the diversity in general organization in different species: in horse, pig, dog, ruminant and others, with their blood and nerve supply. Comparative anatomy of the urogenital system: Male and female reproductive organs, accessory sex glands, kidneys, urinary bladder and urethra. Compare the anatomical structures of the sense organs: the eye, ears with their associated muscles and nerves. Anatomy of endocrine glands:  The study of normal radiological appearances of various structures within the regions of the abdominal and pelvic cavities, and the limbs, using plane X-rays as for bone, radio-opaque substances to visualize soft tissues and other advanced techniques.

VAN 803: Advanced Histology I                  2 Credit units

Introduction to cytology- The protoplasm and its properties. The organization of protoplasm: nucleus, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm, plasmalemma (cell membrane), organelle, inclusion. The cytoskeleton gives structural support to the cytoplasm- microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules..  The four basic tissues: epithelium, nervous, muscular and connective. The epithelial two major forms; surface and glandular- their classifications, locations secretions and their functions. The myoepithelial cells. The Connective and supportive tissues- cells types of fibers and function. The embryonic and adult supportive and connective tissues. The muscular tissue (skeletal, cardiac and smooth)- their structure and contraction. The nervous tissue parenchyma consists of neurons and supportive cells called neuroglia. The Myelin sheath and peripheral nerves.

 

 

 

 

VAN 804: Advanced Histology II                2 Credit units

Introduction to organ system histology. Respiratory system with emphasis on the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs. Histology of the heart; its surface, internal structures and cardiac conducting system. The blood vessels (arteries, veins and the types of capillaries). The immune system: the cells and its organization. Primary lymphatic and secondary organs (Bone marrow, small intestine, cloacal Bursa of birds, thymus, cortex, spleen, and hemal nodes. the digestive system (salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestine) and accessory structures like liver. The urinary system is composed of two kidneys, two ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra. Urogenital histology for males and females. The endocrine organs (tissues and cells) , and organs such as hypophysis cerebri (pituitary gland), epiphysis cerebri (pineal gland), thyroid gland(s), parathyroid glands, and adrenal glands. The basic architecture of the integument (skin) in all mammals. Special sense; the eye (eyeball and accessories), the ear (external, middle and inner).

VAN 805: Advanced Neuroanatomy          3 Credit units

Introduction to nervous system, the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy structures and functions of the brain (brain stem and cerebellum) and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS); cranial and spinal nerves, including associated nerve roots and ganglia. Nerves and ganglia that innervate viscera, the autonomic nervous system (the left and right cervicothoracic part to be emphasis). The spinal and cranial nerves are to discussed with respect to their clinical relevance. CSF and nerve tract tracing techniques.

 

VAN 806: Advanced Embryology   and Teratology     3 Credit units

Comparative embryology of avian and mammals: in introductory and general embryology – sex determination, cleavage, gastrulation and mechanisms of development. Organogenesis – development of various organ systems. Teratogens and mechanisms of congenital abnormalities in organ systems.

 

VAN 807: Problems in Anatomy                    2 Credit units

Basic problems associated with research in Veterinary Anatomy. To proffer current trend employed to mitigate research tools in solving basic problems.

 

VAN 808: Advanced Avian Anatomy        2 Credit units

Morphology and adaptations of the structure of different species of domestic birds and pet birds, relating structure to function. The pneumatic bones of the limbs, the skull (cranial kinesis) the ribs and air sacs. Gross and microscopic morphology of avian urogenital, respiratory, endocrine, nervous system, skin, digestive and others.

 

VAN 810: Electron Microscopy and Ultrastructure           2 Credit units

Introduction to the electron microscope. Types of electron microscope, and comparing the differences between the light and electron microscopy. Brief review of electron optics and application of electron microscopy to medicine and research including elucidation of ultrastructure. Cell ultrastructure and functions of biological membranes; including cilia, villi, flagella, etc. pinocytosis, phagocytosis, etc.

VAN 811: Advanced Histochemistry                      2 Credit units

Basic principles and practice of cytochemistry and histochemical procedures. The study of tissues; histochemistry of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes and exogenous and endogenous metals and pigments. Methods to Histochemical dyes, non-dyes, etc

 

VAN 812: Advanced Clinical Anatomy                    1 Credit unit

Advanced topographic morphology of domestic animals relating structure to clinical veterinary medicine and surgery. Students will perform regional dissections, under the guidance of anatomy faculty, with emphasis on clinical applications of gross anatomical structure and function.

 

VAN 813: Advanced Fish Anatomy                    1 Credit unit

The lecture and lab serves to familiarize the students with basic anatomical terms, the basic external and internal anatomy of fishes, and some understanding of the relationships between form, function, and diversity as they apply to fishes. The external anatomy (Fins, rays and spines, body types/lifestyles, the gill structure, mouth shapes/diets) and the internal anatomy will be done by dissection (gills, intestines, respiratory system, reproductive organs, etc). The development of gills morphometric and their relationships to lungs. Gross and microscopic anatomy of the muscles, cardiovascular and vessels, immune system, integument, digestive (swim and gas bladder), respiratory, nervous, endocrine, urogenital. Sensory system and communication- auditory and lateral line system, chemoreception, vision  and   electric organs and electroreception

 

VAN 814: Radiological Anatomy                                2 Credit units

The aim of the course is to provide the basic radiographic anatomy of the domestic animals, particularly the dog, cat and avian species. This is achieved by the inclusion of both radiographs obtained from VTH and drawings. The immature animal will also be considered to provide the understanding of bone growth.

 

VAN 816: Anatomic Techniques                            1 credit unit

Types of cells and their growth patterns in various growth media and culture chambers and their application to basic medical research. Definition of anatomical land marks and regional terminologies. Basic techniques for embalming, museum specimen preparations- bone maceration and plastination and preparation of whole skeleton. Injection sites and techniques for blood vessels. Routine procedures for light and electron microscopy and tissue preparation procedures for scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

 

VAN 818: Cell and Tissue Culture                                   1 credit unit

Introduction to cell culture. In-vitro cultivation and growth of cells and tissues  including methods, techniques and uses. Various media including the concept of medium (MEM). Organisation and care of cell/tissue culture laboratory and equipment, etc. Application of cell/tissue culture in medicine and research.

VAN899: 

 

LIST OF ACADEMIC STAFF 

S/N NAME QUALIFICATION RANK SPECIALIZATION
1 Elsa, E. T. DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Professor Surgery
2 Abu, A. H DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Professor Reproductive Physiology
3 Byanet O DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Associate Professor Neuroanatomy, Gross Anatomy
4 Abenga, J. N DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Associate Professor Clinical Pathology
5 Samuel, M. O. DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Gross Anatomy
6 Agada C.A DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Zoonosis/ Biostatistics
7 Kisani, A DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Small Animal Soft Tissue Surgery
8 Wanmi, N DVM, M.Sc., Ph.D. Lecturer 1 Neuroanatomy, Embryology