You are here : Academics  >  Examination Guidelines

Examination Guidelines

Examination Guidelines

Download Examination Guideline

Download Examination Guideline


Definitions of Examination Regulations


These Examination Regulations shall apply to Degree and Non-Degree Examinations of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, which shall operate the course unit and Semester system effective from January, 1998


1.         DEFINITIONS
1.1.      Degree and Non-Degree Examinations

These are examinations held at the end of courses. The final score of a student is an aggregate of the continuous assignment grades and the mark in the main course examination


1.2.      Continuous Assessment

It is the periodic examination/test or any other course work conducted during the course to monitor the progress and to evaluate the performance of students.

Continuous Assessment of students should be 40% for practical courses and 30% for other courses of the total mark for each course. It shall be by means of term papers, frequent tests (formal and informal), assessment in workshop/lab/studio/field, etc as may be applicable in respective disciplines.
A minimum of three continuous assessments is required for each course.


1.3.      (a)        Examinations

These are examinations held at the end of each semester.

(b)      Examination Mark

Examination mark is the computed aggregate of the continuous assessment and end of course scores taking into account of the proper weighting.


1.4.      External Examiner

An External Examiner in a particular subject/field is a qualified expert in the subject/field; normally an academic not below the rank of Senior Lecturer from any recognized University appointed by the University of Agriculture Makurdi.


1.5.      Year of Study

A year of study shall be interpreted to mean any particular year in the course of a given degree programme for which selected courses are attached, as distinct from the number of years any student spent in the University.


1.6       Forms of Examinations

Examinations may take the form of written paper, oral examinations, practical, dissertations, combination of these or any others approved by Senate.

1.7       Grading
All examinations/degree(s) shall be graded/classified as follows, except degree in Veterinary Medicine.
(a)        All courses shall be graded out of a maximum of 100 marks and shall thereafter be represented by letter grades. These grades shall be related to the corresponding grade points based on the pre-determined 5 point grade system:


Percentage Score

Letter Grade

Grade Point


70 and above







Very Good


















Pass mark  shall be ‘E’ which translates to a Minimum score of 40%  except in Veterinary  Medicine where the pass mark shall be ‘C’  which is equivalent  to 50%


(b)        Classification of First Degree (s)

All degrees, except Veterinary Medicine degree of the University of Agriculture Makurdi shall be classified based on Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) as shown below:


GCPA                                                            DEGREE                                           NON-DEGREE
4.50-5.00                                             1st Class                                              Distinction

3.50-4.49                                             2nd Class (Upper)                               Upper Credit  
2.40-3.49                                             2nd Class (Lower)                              Lower Credit
1.50-2.39                                             3rd Class                                             Pass
1.00-1.49                                             Pass                                                                                        


Percentage Score                   Letter Grade              Grade Point               Interpretation
70 and above                           A                                 5                                  Excellent
60-69                                       B                                 4                                  Very Good

50-59                                       C                                 3                                  Good
45-49                                       D                                 2                                  Fair

PASS MARK will be ‘D’ for PGD which translate to a minimum score of 45%.


Percentage Score                   Letter Grade              Grade Point               Interpretation
70 and above                           A                                 5                                  Excellent
60-69                                       B                                 4                                  Very Good

50-59                                       C                                 3                                  Good

Pass Mark shall be ‘C’ for M. Sc. which translates to a minimum score of 50%.


Veterinary Medicine

Percentage Score                   Letter Grade              Grade Point               Interpretation

70 and above                           A                                 5                                  Excellent
60-69                                       B                                 4                                  Very Good

50-59                                       C                                 3                                  Good

Pass Mark shall be ‘C’ for Veterinary Medicine which translates to a minimum score of 50%.


Percentage Score                   Letter Grade              Grade Point               Interpretation
70 and above                           A                                 5                                  Excellent
60-69                                       B                                 4                                  Very Good

50-59                                       C                                 3                                  Good

Pass mark shall be ‘C’ for Ph.D which translates to a minimum score 50%.

Examination Schedules


2.1       Examination Dates

Course examinations shall be scheduled at the end of the semester in which the course is taught and on dates approved by Senate.


2.2       Examination Materials

The Registrar shall supply on request by the Dean of College all required examination materials at least 4 weeks before the commencement of examinations.


2.3       Time Table

The University shall publish the schedule of examination dates and time on Notice Boards not later than 4 weeks to the commencement of examinations.
Examination time table may not be altered except with the approval of Senate.


2.4       Length of Semester Examinations

The length of any written course examination shall lie between 2-3 hours.

This restriction shall not apply to practical examination or field work.


2.5       Examination Venues

All University examinations shall be held in halls, rooms or spaces approved by the Examination Board of the Department/College in accordance with the framework of guidelines laid down by Senate.


2.6.      Time Guide for Candidates

Each examination Hall/Room shall have a wall clock conspicuously displayer for the attention of candidates.


2.7       Sitting Arrangement

Candidates must be seated sufficiently far apart and students taking identical papers should not sit together. All candidates must be visible to the invigilator(s).  Each candidate shall have his/her number written on the space allocated to the candidate.


2.8       Medical Service

            Medical Service shall be available during examinations.


2.9       Security Service

Security Men shall be posted to designated places around all examination venues during examinations.

Admission of Candidates to Examination Halls


3.1       Condition for Admission

             In order to be admitted to any examination of the University, a candidate must:

(i)                 be duly registered for the course:

(ii)               follow the approved course of study for a prescribed period;

(iii)             pay all fees prescribed by Senate;

(iv)             satisfy University attendance requirement which shall be 75% and satisfactory completion of course work, practical, assignment, projects or other matters. Such requirements must be made known to the students at the commencement of the relevant course; and

(v)               shall be required to show their identity cards before being admitted into the examination hall.


3.2       List of Candidates       

The Registrar shall publish a list of all the candidates registered for each examination. It shall be the responsibility of each student to ensure that he is registered for the appropriate examinations and that he knows the dates, times and venues of the examination for which he is registered.

Examination Questions



4.1       Pass Mark

Examination question shall be set and marked on the assumption that the pass mark is 40% for undergraduates and 50% for non-classified degrees.


4.2       Nature of Questions

Vetting of Examination Questions shall normally be for final year students  only by External Examiners to remove any ambiguity; and the questions shall be so framed to constitute a fair test of the candidates’ overall knowledge of the  syllabus.


4.3       Number of Questions

Draft question paper(s) must normally contain questions not less that 1½ times the number of questions (to be determined by each college) that will eventually appear in the question paper(s).


4.4       Questions

Draft question paper(s) duly signed by the Internal Examiner shall be submitted to the Head of Department for vetting not later than 4 weeks for final year papers and 2 weeks for others.


4.5       Time for Setting Questions

The Head of Department who is the Chief Examiner shall receive draft question papers of the Department from Internal Examiners not later those 4 weeks in the case of final papers and 2 weeks for other to the date of the examination.


4.6       Production of Question papers

The Chief Examiner shall produce question papers at least a day before each examination.


4.7       Confidentiality of Question Papers

The Chief Examiner ensures that examination papers are strictly confidential and all precautions must be taken to ensure that questions are not revealed to unauthorized persons.


4.8       Custody of Examination papers

Examination papers after production under maximum security shall be parceled, sealed and kept under lock and key by the Chief Examiner. The Chief  Examiner shall deliver to the Chief  Invigilator the question papers not earlier that  30 minutes to the time of the examination.


4.9       Copies of Examination Question papers.

After each examination, the Chief Examiner shall submit copies of examination question papers to the Dean of the College who in turn shall deposit it with the University Librarian for custody.




5.1       Arrangements
Arrangements for invigilation in each College shall be the responsibilities of the College Board. At least two invigilators shall be appointed for each hall/room. In addition, there shall be at least one attendant in each hall/room with due provision made for male and female candidates.

One of the invigilators shall be designated Chief Invigilator who shall:

(i)                 collect examination materials from the Chief Examiner 30 minutes to the time of the relevant examinations;

(ii)               maintain an attendance register which shall be completed and lodged with the Head of Department;

(iii)             receive from invigilator(s) any report on examination malpractice and forward same to the Chief Examiner;

(iv)             deposit examination answer scripts with the Chief Examiner.


5.2       Instructions to Invigilators

            It shall be the first duty of an invigilator to exercise constant supervision over candidates.


5.3       Any invigilator shall report to the examination hall half an hour before the Chief Examiner is due to start and the Chief Invigilator shall collect from the Chief Examiner the question papers in sealed packets.


5.4       Each of the sealed packets of examination papers must be opened in the presence of the candidates.


5.5       Immediately after the copies of the paper(s) have been distributed, the Chief Invigilator shall normally ask the candidates to see that they have the papers for which they have been entered. Then and only then shall the Chief Invigilator give signal for examination to start.


5.6       While the examination is in progress, no person other than the invigilators, Chief Examiner, Dean or Dean’s Representative, Registrar’s Representative (Exam. and Records) and the medical personnel shall be allowed to enter the hall.

The Internal Examiner (s) for each paper shall be available at the on-set of the examination to handle queries in the given paper.


5.7       Silence shall be maintained throughout an examination by both invigilators and candidates.


5.8       Candidates shall not be admitted after the first half hour of the examination.


5.9       No candidates may leave the examination hall with the intention of returning except accompanied.


5.10     No candidates may be allowed to leave the examination hall until the first half-hour lapses.


5.11     No question paper shall be removed from the hall before the first half-hour has elapsed.


5.12     The time allowed for an examination, as indicated on the examination paper, must be strictly adhered to.


5.13     Invigilators shall announce to the candidates the time at periodic intervals during the process of examination


5.14     Invigilators shall be responsible for marking of the attendance registers and shall report within 24 hours to the Chief Examiner any absence of candidate(s) from each examination.


5.15     It is the duty of Invigilators to tally the number of answer scripts with the number marked present in the attendance register

Examination Results



6.1       The Examiner(s) in each course shall grade all the answer papers and forward such grades to the Chief Examiner: Department and College Examination Board should normally meet within two weeks after the date of the last paper. Examination results along with matters arising there from of all the College should normally be submitted within three weeks of the last paper to Senate for final consideration and approval.

Submission of results to Senate shall be in two forms:

6.1       (i)         Pass and Fail list and with letter grade-marks of candidates.


6.2       All examination results considered and approved by Senate shall be the property of the University, and shall be placed in the custody of the Registrar.


6.3       All answer scripts shall be preserved by the College for at least 4 years.


6.4       Marks scored in any examination shall not be released to the student except by the authority of senate.


6.5       Examination results shall be published by the Registrar on the official University Notice Board within 48 hours after approval by Senate. It is expected that examination materials given to Deans of Colleges should include production of clean copies of result(s).


6.6       It is the responsibility of every student to check the result of his/her performance in any examination from the official University Notice Boards.

Examination Default Consequences

7.0       Examination Default Consequences


7.1       Course Credit System and Qualifications for Probation/Withdrawal

As indicated in Section (1) the University shall operate the Course Credit System in its academic programme. This should be understood to mean a qualitative system of organization of the curriculum in which subject areas are broken down into unit courses which are examinable and for which students earn credits if passed. Courses are assigned weights called Credit Units.


7.2       Minimum and Maximum Credit Load by Students

The minimum and maximum academic load per semester of a full-time student shall be 15 credit units and 24 credit units respectively; Final year students who fail one or two core compulsory course shall be permitted to register for only the failed course. All other category of student must meet the minimum credit load requirement. In order not to overload weak students:


(i)                 No student with a CGPA of less than 1.5 in a particular session shall be allowed to register more than the College Optimum load as defined in the approved Academic Brief.

(ii)               A student with a CGPA of 1.5 and above could register up to the maximum of 24 credits per semester in the next session subject to the approval of the Dean of College on the recommendation of the student’s Departmental Academic Adviser.


7.3       Grade point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average                  
(i)         Grade Point (GP):  The Grade point derives from the actual percentage, raw

score for a given course; the raw score is converted into a letter grade and grade point.


(ii)        Grade Point Average (GPA):  Performance in any semester is reported    in Grade Point Average. This is the average of weighted grade points earned in the courses taken during the semester.

(iii)             Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA):  This is the up to date mean of the grade point earned by the student in a programme of study. It is an indication of the student’s overall performance at any point in the training programme. To  compute the CGPA, the total  grade points multiplied by the respective credit points for all the semesters are added and then divided by the total number of credit units for all courses registered by the students.

The compilation of grade point average, as well as the scoring and grading system are shown in Table 1.

Credit Units

Percentage Scores

Letter Grades

Grade Point

Grade Point Average (GPA)


Class of Degree








Very according
To contact
Hours assigned
To each course
Per week per
According to work load
Carried by student




by Multi-
I & iv
by Total


First class





Second Class





Second Class





Third Class













7.4       Qualification for probation and Withdrawal

(i)         Probation:

Probation is a status granted to a student whose academic performance is below an acceptable standard. A student whose CGPA is below 1.00 for two consecutive semester earns period of probation. This is essentially a warning to the student to improve on his or her performance.

(ii)        Withdrawal:
Any student on probation who fails to redeem his probation for two consecutive sessions will be withdrawn.


7.5       Repeating Failed Courses

Students shall be allowed to repeat failed coursed at the next available opportunity subject to the provision of section 7.2 (ii) of these regulations. All the grade point earned at all attempts shall count towards the CGPA.


7.6       External Examiner System

External Examiners should be used only in the final year of undergraduate programmes as well as major subject areas in professional programmes, to assess final year courses and projects, and to certify the overall performance of the graduating students, as well as the quality of facilities and teaching both in major subject areas of professional programme and end of degree examinations.


7.7       Duration of Degree Programme                                                                  

The  minimum  number of years to be spent  to be awarded a first degree in a programme of study shall be five years and four years respectively. For a five year degree programme, a student shall be qualified for a classified degree if he graduates within six years.

Otherwise, he shall be awarded a pass degree if he meets the minimum requirements for graduation within seven years; failure to which he shall be withdrawn from the University. For a four year degree programme, a student shall be qualified for a classified degree if he graduates within five years. Otherwise, he shall be awarded a pass degree if he meets the minimum requirements for graduation within six year; failure to which he shall be withdrawn from the University.  For DVM, the maximum period allowed is eight years.

Award of Degree

8.         AWARD OF DEGREE

8.1       Undergraduate and Higher Degree(s)

For the award of a   regular degree, a candidate must have:

(i)                 duly been matriculated;

(ii)               passed the prescribed General Studies courses; by this provision, Direct Entry students shall also be required to take General Studies courses;                         

(iii)             passed all core courses in the degree programme for which he/she   was registered

(iv)             accumulated the required minimum number of credits as determined by the College and approved by Senate for the award of degree;

(v)               paid all prescribed fees;

(vi)             been of good conduct throughout his stay in the University; and

(vii)           met the minimum residential requirement of 2 years.


8.2       Regulation and Graduation

Students shall normally graduate according to regulations prevailing at the time of their matriculation subject to any modification that may be made be Senate.


8.3       Aegrotat Degree

An aegrotat degree may be awarded on approval by Senate on the following conditions:

(i)                 A student who fails to take the final year examinations because of ill-health after having completed all the courses may submit application for an Aegrotat degree;

(ii)               Any student wishing to apply for an Aegrotat degree through the College must produce full medical report on the events leading to withdrawal from the final year examinations.


8.4       Posthumous Degree

Any student who dies before the publication of degree examination results or the actual conferment of degree but who has satisfied all the conditions for an award of a degree may be awarded the appropriate degree of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, posthumously. Such a degree shall bear the relevant class in accordance with the student’s performance.


8.5       Honorary Degree

To qualify for award of honorary degree(s) of the University of Agriculture Makurdi, candidates must satisfy all the conditions prescribed by Senate for such award.


8.6       Transcript of Academic Records

(i)         The Registrar shall, on request, forward the transcript of Academic Records of any student of the University of Agriculture Makurdi to any competent authority. All such requests by students for a transcript must be accompanied by evidence of payment of a fee prescribed from time to time by Senate. Where a request originates from an institution in respect of any graduate of the University, no fee shall be charged to the body making the request;


(ii)        A  transcript, apart from bearing all relevant personal data about the student, shall contain full information about all degree courses for which the student registered  and was examined throughout his/her period of studies in University of  Agriculture Makurdi together with course codes, titles, credit units and grades obtained. The date of graduation and the final class of degree are also to be stated in the transcript where applicable;


(iii)       Only letter grades shall be sent to any institution requesting for transcripts. Where passes are not graded, the transcript shall contain only pass or fail against the courses.

Procedure for Review of Examination Answers Scripts



9.1       A student aggrieved by his/her grading, should in the first instance petition the registrar    who shall refer the petition to the relevant Dean for a review.


9.2       The script(s) shall be sent for re-assessment to internal or external examiners who did not participate in the original marking exercise.


9.3       The findings and recommendations of the College Board shall be sent to Senate through the Registrar for consideration and approval.


9.4       (a)        for an appeal to be valid, notice in writing of such an appeal must be lodged with the Registrar within four (4) weeks of the release of the relevant result(s)

(b)        Appeal must be accompanied by evidence of payment of fees prescribed from time to time by Senate.

(c)        The reviewer(s) shall use the original marking scheme prepared by the Internal Examiner.


Appointment and Function of Examiners



10.1     Chief Examiner

In addition to the functions specified in section 4.4, to 4.9 the Chief Examiner who is also the Head of Department shall:

(a)        be responsible for the general coordination, control and supervision of all examinations in the department;

(b)        receive from the Chief Invigilator any report on examination malpractice and treat as appropriate;

(c)        keep custody of attendance register submitted by the Chief      Invigilator; 

(d)       release to the Chief Invigilator examination answer scripts for onward distribution to the Internal Examiners;

(e)        forward past question papers to the Dean of the College for onward submission to the University Librarian for custody; and

(f)        arrange for the conduct of external examinations where appropriate.


10.2     Internal Examiners

For all University examinations, there shall be Internal Examiners who are members (full or part time) of academic departments involved in the teaching of courses during the semester concerned. The Internal Examiner shall constitute the Departmental Board of Examiners with the Head of Department as the Chief Examiner for considering Department examination results in the first instance.


10.3     Functions of Internal Examiners

The functions of Internal Examiners are:

(a)        to set and mark examination papers within the space of time stipulated by Senate;

(b)        to conduct practical/oral examinations;

(c)        to participate in the moderation of examination results through the appropriate examination Board.


10.4     Functions of Departmental Board of Examiners

The Departmental Board of Examiners which consists of both Internal and External Examiners, where applicable, shall;

(a)        consider the examination results of the Department;

(b)        prepare result master list and forward same to the College Board of Examiners.

(c)        make recommendation on award of aegrotat degree to the College Board;

(d)       carry out any other activities as may be prescribed by the College Board.


10.5     Functions of College Board of Examiners

There shall be a Board of Examiners for each College. It shall consist of the Dean of the College, all Heads of Department in the College, External Examiners where necessary, and all other College Academic members not below the rank of Assistant lecturer.

The College Board of Examiner shall;


(a)        consider and approve Departmental examination results normally within two weeks of the completion of the last examination paper;

(b)        consider and make recommendations on reports of examination malpractice and examination misconduct/irregularities brought to it  by the Chief  Examiner(s)  respectively;

(c)        set up panel where necessary to investigate these misconduct/irregularities;

(d)       Make recommendations about the award of Aegrotat degree(s) to Senate;

(e)        Carry out any other activities as may be prescribed by Senate;


10.6     External Examiners 

(i)         External Examiners shall be appointed to each Department/College annually by

Senate on the recommendations of the College Board for a period of three years after which he will not be re-appointed until after a period of three years.

(ii)        An External Examiner shall be an academic not below the rank of Senior Lecture

in any recognized University and shall not have been a full time member of the University of Agriculture Makurdi during three academic sessions immediately preceding the proposed date of appointment.

(iii)       An External Examiner shall:

(a)        moderate the relevant examination papers and certify such papers as having been moderated by him;

(b)        mark or revise the marking of candidates’ scripts as he may in consultation with Chief Examiner;

(c)        attend   practical examinations where applicable;

(b)        conduct oral examinations with the Chief Examiner/Internal Examiner/entire academic staff where applicable;

(e)        submit a confidential report on examinations and facilities to the Vice-Chancellor at the completion of each moderation exercise;

(f)        External Examiners shall receive such remuneration for their services as approved by the University.


Conducts of Students at Examination

Examination Offenses



The following offenses shall attract written warning or cancellation of paper;

12.1     Speaking or conversing during examination.

12.2     Writing on a question or scrap paper

12.3     Smoking in examination hall.

12.4     Canvassing for revelation of examination marks

12.5     Writing at the expiration of time allowed for the paper.



The following offenses if accompanied by violence shall attract rustication for one semester:

13.1     Speaking of conversing during examination

13.2     Writing on a question or scrap paper.

13.3     Smoking in examination hall.

13.4     Canvassing for revelation of examination marks.

13.5     Writing at the expiration of time allowed for the paper



The following offenses shall attract rustication for two semesters.

14.1     Possession of foreign materials in examination hall.

14.2     Non-submission or incomplete submission of answer scripts.


Senate at its 156th continuation meeting held on July 11, 2003 resolved that:
Any student found guilty of Examination Misconduct shall with effect from 2001/2002 second semester examination be expelled from the University without an option of rustication.



The following offenses shall carry the punishment of expulsion:
15.1     Possession of foreign materials in the examination hall if accompanied by violence.

15.2     Non-submission or incomplete submission of answer scripts if accompanied by violence.

15.3     Impersonation at Examinations: This may involve the exchange of examination numbers; names or answer sheets or use of someone else’s examination number.

15.4     Introduction of relevant foreign material into the examination hall.

15.5     Exchange of relevant material into the examination hall which may involve:

(a)        Exchange of question papers containing relevant jottings
(b)        Exchange of answer scripts;
(c)        Exchange of information relevant to the examination by whatever means;
(d)       Collaboration or copying from each other or cheat notes.


15.6     Leakage of examination paper.

15.7     Substitution of answer script or canvassing for upgrading of marks.

15.8     Theft or removal of examination scripts or materials.

15.9     Mischief by fire to examination scripts or materials, defacing, destroying or chewing of examination scripts or materials.

15.10   Consulting cheat notes relevant to the examination inside the examination hall.

15.11   Facilitating or abetting cheating or leakage.

15.12   Above notwithstanding, Senate can evoke any punishment for any examination offence not mentioned above based on information available to Senate.


16.       OFFENSES INVOLVING STAFF           

Any act of commission or omission amounting to examination malpractice by a member of staff shall be referred to the Administration for appropriate disciplinary action.